Prefabricated buildings are taking over the market day by day. One of the driving forces behind prefabricated buildings is the government’s determination to build an ecological and civilized environment. Although assembly-style development is still a long way off for China’s construction industry, it is not a dark road. Many foreign countries for the assembly of the long development process and their achievements can be used as an important reference for the development of our domestic assembly building. So today I’d like to share with you the features, achievements and advanced ideas of prefab architecture from several foreign countries.
Japan introduced the concept of prefab housing as early as 1968. Because Japan is in an earthquake zone, prefab houses have high requirements for earthquake resistance: prefab concrete damping and isolation technology, and government legislation to ensure the quality of precast concrete construction. Today, about 41 percent of prefabricated buildings in Japan are made of wood, 38 percent of steel and 20 percent of reinforced concrete.
We can see from the development of Japan, the participation of the government guarantees the prefabricated construction and promote the positive development: clear goals (every five years has residential construction five-year plan) to ensure the improvement and development of housing industrialization, the strict legislation to ensure the quality of the building on the market, the specialized agencies to promote (” transport ministry residential residential class wooden residential revitalization of the room “) guarantees the industry standardization and advanced. At the same time, da Group actively participates in leading the technical development in the field of prefab housing without promulgating enterprise norms and process standards, which provides a benchmark basis for the prefab industry, thus leading the development of professional companies and forming a complete industrial chain for common development.
Germany has always been a rigorous and serious country in our cognition. Industrialization can spread to almost all their industries, and the construction industry is no exception. They constantly pursue process standardization and operation mechanization, and try every means to improve efficiency in all fields. And they have been among the most cutting-edge countries in PC prefabricated product development and material research. Today, Germany has the fastest reduction in building energy consumption in the world, and in recent years it has proposed to develop zero-energy passive buildings. From large energy savings to passive buildings, Germany has adopted prefab homes, which are fully integrated with energy efficiency standards. Prefabricated buildings in Germany are mainly steel and wood structures. At the same time, based on the strong research support from universities, research institutions and enterprises, Germany has formed a strong industrial chain of prefabricated buildings, and a collaborative supporting system of architecture, structure, water, heating and electricity. In addition, due to the close cooperation between construction enterprises and machinery and equipment suppliers, Germany has advanced machinery and equipment, materials and logistics, which has got rid of the limitation of fixed module size and to a large extent met the requirements of industrialization.
From the German assembly-style development, we can see the importance of the establishment of industry standards and specifications. German technical specifications first meet the general building comprehensive technical requirements, but also can meet the requirements in production and installation. In addition, we also need to encourage the research of different types of prefabricated building technology system, so as to gradually form a more applicable general technology system and scale production, thus achieving the purpose of improving efficiency and reducing cost.
According to Professor Kevin Wolfe, vice President of the International Federation of Building Authorities (ICBO), “the United States has established a mature market for assembled residential construction (industrial construction), with the standardization, serialization and commercialization of assembled residential components and components approaching 100%.” Through the product catalog, users can buy the products they need, these components have good structural performance, great versatility, and easy to mechanized production. This is thanks to America’s distinctive assembly-line industry. American housing is mainly prefabricated housing with low-rise steel and wood structure, focusing on the comfort and individuality of the residence. The United States does not have the phenomenon of rough housing delivery, can achieve a comprehensive prefabricated decoration.
As we can see, the construction industry in the United States can realize complete marketization, and the corresponding codes and standards (BL quality certification system) are complete, with a high degree of standardization. In addition, the builders of large companies will frequently merge or establish partnerships, purchase large quantities of residential units, and achieve scale effect to reduce costs by expanding scale.