The prefabricated house refers to the house prefabricated and assembled on site. It uses the latest cold-pressed light steel structure and various parts of the light-weight material to combine the various parts of the house, so that it has excellent heat preservation, sound insulation, fire prevention and insect protection, energy saving, earthquake resistance, Moisture-proof function. The common practice in domestic construction is on-site production. Although this method has certain advantages, it has disadvantages such as high energy consumption, heavy wet work, and inability to guarantee the quality of the building. Residential buildings abroad are mostly prefabricated and assembled on site. This is conducive to the realization of residential industrialization. Therefore, popularizing prefabricated houses is of great practical significance.
All countries began processing and construction of prefabricated houses as early as the 1970s, including block buildings, large slab buildings, box structures, and so on.
1. Block building
The prefabricated block material is used to build a prefabricated building with a wall. The block building has strong adaptability, simple production technology, simple construction, low cost, and can also use local materials and industrial waste. . Building blocks are divided into small, medium and large. Small blocks are suitable for manual handling and masonry, with a low degree of industrialization, flexibility and convenience, and wide use. Medium-sized blocks can be hoisted by small machinery, which can save masonry labor. Large blocks have now been replaced by prefabricated large panels.
2. Panel construction
Also known as large-slab building, it is assembled from prefabricated large-scale interior and exterior wall panels, floor panels and roof panels. It is the main type of fully fabricated building in the industrialized system. The equipment in the building often uses centralized indoor pipe fittings or box-type toilets to improve the degree of assembly. The main shortcomings of large-slab buildings are that they have greater restrictions on the shape and layout of buildings, and the internal partitions of large-slab buildings with small bays and lateral load-bearing lack flexibility, which have certain limitations in the use of residences.
3. Box building
A prefabricated building developed on the basis of sheet building. This kind of building has a high degree of factoryization and quick on-site installation. Generally, not only the structural part of the box is completed in the factory, but the interior decoration and equipment are also installed, and even furniture and carpets can be installed. The box is hoisted and can be used after the pipeline is connected.